References

1 Sievert W, Altraif I, Razavi HA, et al. A systematic review of hepatitis C virus epidemiology in Asia, Australia and Egypt. Liver Int 2011; 31 Suppl 2: 61-80.

2 Hajarizadeh B, Grebely J, McManus H, et al. Chronic hepatitis C burden and care cascade in Australia in the era of interferon-based treatment. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017; 32 (1): 229-236. doi: 10.1111/jgh.13453.

3 Kirby Institute. Hepatitis B and C in Australia: annual surveillance report supplement 2016. Sydney: Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, 2016.

4 Hajarizadeh B, Grebely J, Matthews G, et al. Treatment uptake for chronic hepatitis C in Australia following universal access to interferon-free treatments [abstract 1917]. Hepatology 2016; 64 (1 Suppl): 948A.

5 Sievert W, Razavi H, Estes C, et al. Enhanced antiviral treatment efficacy and uptake in preventing the rising burden of hepatitis C-related liver disease and costs in Australia. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014; 29 Suppl 1: 1-9.

6 Martin NK, Vickerman P, Grebely J, et al. Hepatitis C virus treatment for prevention among people who inject drugs: modeling treatment scale-up in the age of direct-acting antivirals. Hepatology 2013; 58 (5): 1598-1609.

7 Arora S, Thornton K, Murata G, et al. Outcomes of treatment for hepatitis C virus infection by primary care providers. N Engl J Med 2011; 364 (23): 2199-2207.

8 Baker D, Alavi M, Erratt A, et al. Delivery of treatment for hepatitis C virus infection in the primary care setting. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014; 26 (9): 1003-1009.

9 Biddle ML, Adler NR, Heath M, et al. Nurse-led clinic: effective and efficient delivery of assessment and review of patients with hepatitis B and C. Intern Med J 2014; 44 (6): 581-585.

10 Nazareth S, Piercey C, Tibbet P, Cheng W. Innovative practice in the management of chronic hepatitis C: introducing the nurse practitioner model. Aust J Adv Nurs 2008; 25(4): 107-113.

11 Wade AJ, Macdonald DM, Doyle JS, et al. The cascade of care for an Australian community-based hepatitis C treatment service. PLoS One 2015; 10 (11): e0142770.

12 Butler T, Boonwaat L, Hailstone S, et al. The 2004 Australian prison entrants' blood-borne virus and risk behaviour survey. Aust N Z J Public Health 2007; 31 (1): 44-50.

13 Bate JP, Colman AJ, Frost PJ, et al. High prevalence of late relapse and reinfection in prisoners treated for chronic hepatitis C. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 25 (7): 1276-1280.

14 Lloyd AR, Clegg J, Lange J, et al. Safety and effectiveness of a nurse-led outreach program for assessment and treatment of chronic hepatitis C in the custodial setting. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 56 (8): 1078-1084.

15 Aspinall EJ, Corson S, Doyle JS, et al. Treatment of hepatitis C virus infection among people who are actively injecting drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 57 Suppl 2: S80-S89.

16 Hellard M, Rolls DA, Sacks-Davis R, et al. The impact of injecting networks on hepatitis C transmission and treatment in people who inject drugs. Hepatology 2014; 60 (6): 1861-1870.

17 Jeffrey GP, MacQuillan G, Chua F, et al. Hepatitis C virus eradication in intravenous drug users maintained with subcutaneous naltrexone implants. Hepatology 2007; 45 (1): 111-117.

18 Fragomeli V, Weltman M. Addressing viral hepatitis in the opiate substitution setting: an integrated nursing model of care. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015; 30 Suppl 2: 6-11.

19 Bruce RD, Eiserman J, Acosta A, et al. Developing a modified directly observed therapy intervention for hepatitis C treatment in a methadone maintenance program: implications for program replication. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2012; 38 (3): 206-212.

20 Nazareth S, Kontorinis N, Muwanwella N, et al. Successful treatment of patients with hepatitis C in rural and remote Western Australia via telehealth. J Telemed Telecare 2013; 19 (2): 101-106.

21 Bowden DS, Berzsenyi MD. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection: genotyping and its clinical role. Future Microbiol 2006; 1 (1): 103-112.

22 Kemp W, Levy M, Weltman M, Lubel J. Australian Liver Association (ALA) expert consensus recommendations for the use of transient elastography in chronic viral hepatitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015; 30 (3): 453-462.

23 European Association for Study of Liver; Asociacion Latinoamericana para el Estudio del Higado. EASL-ALEH clinical practice guidelines: non-invasive tests for evaluation of liver disease severity and prognosis. J Hepatol 2015; 63 (1): 237-264.

24 Afdhal N, Reddy KR, Nelson DR, et al; ION-2 Investigators. Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for previously treated HCV genotype 1 infection. N Engl J Med 2014; 370 (16): 1483-1493.

25 Afdhal N, Zeuzem S, Kwo P, et al; ION-1 Investigators. Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for untreated HCV genotype 1 infection. N Engl J Med 2014; 370 (20): 1889-1898.

26 Eslam M, Hashem AM, Romero-Gomez M, et al. FibroGENE: a gene-based model for staging liver fibrosis. J Hepatol 2016; 64 (2): 390-398.

27 Gastrointestinal Expert Group. Advanced liver disease. In: Therapeutic guidelines: gastrointestinal. Version 6. Melbourne: Therapeutic Guidelines Limited, 2016.

28 National Health and Medical Research Council. Australian guidelines to reduce health risks from drinking alcohol. Canberra: NHMRC, 2009. http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/ds10-alcohol.pdf (accessed Feb 2016).

29 Australasian Hepatology Association. AHA consensus guidelines for the provision of adherence support to patients with hepatitis C on direct acting antivirals. Brisbane: AHA, 2016. http://www.hepatologyassociation.com.au/about-us/publications (accessed Dec 2016).

30 Richmond JA, Sheppard-Law S, Mason S, Warner SL. The Australasian Hepatology Association consensus guidelines for the provision of adherence support to patients with hepatitis C on direct acting antivirals. Patient Prefer Adherence 2016; 10: 2479-2489.

31 Feld JJ, Jacobson IM, Hézode C, et al; ASTRAL-1 Investigators. Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir for HCV genotype 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 infection. N Engl J Med 2015; 373 (27): 2599-2607.

32 Foster GR, Afdhal N, Roberts SK, et al; ASTRAL-2 Investigators, ASTRAL-3 Investigators. Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir for HCV genotype 2 and 3 infection. N Engl J Med 2015; 373: 2608-2617.

33 Kowdley KV, Gordon SC, Reddy KR, et al; ION-3 Investigators. Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for 8 or 12 weeks for chronic HCV without cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 2014; 370 (20): 1879-1888.

34 Bourliere M, Bronowicki JP, de Ledinghen V, et al. Ledipasvir-sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin to treat patients with HCV genotype 1 infection and cirrhosis non-responsive to previous protease-inhibitor therapy: a randomised, double-blind, phase 2 trial (SIRIUS). Lancet Infect Dis 2015; 15 (4): 397-404.

35 Zeuzem S, Ghalib R, Reddy KR, et al. Grazoprevir-elbasvir combination therapy for treatment-naive cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1, 4, or 6 infection: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2015; 163 (1): 1-13. doi: 10.7326/M15-0785.

36 Rockstroh JK, Nelson M, Katlama C, et al. Efficacy and safety of grazoprevir (MK-5172) and elbasvir (MK-8742) in patients with hepatitis C virus and HIV co-infection (C-EDGE CO-INFECTION): a non-randomised, open-label trial. Lancet HIV 2015; 2 (8): e319-e327. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(15)00114-9.

37 Kwo P, Gane E, Peng CY, et al. Effectiveness of elbasvir and grazoprevir combination, with or without ribavirin, for treatment-experienced patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Gastroenterology 2016 Oct 5. pii: S0016-5085(16)35170-8. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2016.09.045 [Epub ahead of print].

38 Buti M, Gordon SC, Zuckerman E, et al. Grazoprevir, elbasvir, and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection after failure of pegylated interferon and ribavirin with an earlier-generation protease inhibitor: final 24-week results from C-SALVAGE. Clin Infect Dis 2016; 62 (1): 32-36. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ722.

39 Roth D, Nelson DR, Bruchfeld A, et al. Grazoprevir plus elbasvir in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection and stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease (the C-SURFER study): a combination phase 3 study. Lancet 2015; 386 (10003): 1537-1545.

40 Merck Sharp & Dohme (Australia). Product information: Zepatier elbasvir / grazoprevir tablets. Canberra: Therapeutic Goods Administration, 2016. https://www.ebs.tga.gov.au/ebs/picmi/picmirepository.nsf/pdf?OpenAgent&id=CP-2016-PI-02468-1&d=2016121516114622483 (accessed Dec 2016).

41 Wyles DL, Ruane PJ, Sulkowski MS, et al; ALLY-2 Investigators. Daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir for HCV in patients coinfected with HIV-1. N Engl J Med 2015; 373 (8): 714-725.

42 Sulkowski MS, Gardiner DF, Rodriguez-Torres M, et al; AI444040 Study Group. Daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir for previously treated or untreated chronic HCV infection. N Engl J Med 2014; 370 (3): 211-221.

43 Feld JJ, Kowdley KV, Coakley E, et al. Treatment of HCV with ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with ribavirin. N Engl J Med 2014; 370 (17): 1594-1603.

44 Ferenci P, Bernstein D, Lalezari J, et al; PEARL-III Study; PEARL-IV Study. ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with or without ribavirin for HCV. N Engl J Med 2014; 370 (21): 1983-1992.

45 Poordad F, Hezode C, Trinh R, et al. ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with ribavirin for hepatitis C with cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 2014; 370 (21): 1973-1982.

46 Zeuzem S, Jacobson IM, Baykal T, et al. Retreatment of HCV with ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with ribavirin. N Engl J Med 2014; 370 (17): 1604-1614.

47 Andreone P, Colombo MG, Enejosa JV, et al. ABT-450, ritonavir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir achieves 97% and 100% sustained virologic response with or without ribavirin in treatment-experienced patients with HCV genotype 1b infection. Gastroenterology 2014; 147 (2): 359-365.e1.

48 Gane EJ, Sola R, Cohen E, et al. RUBY-II: Efficacy and safety of a ribavirin-free ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir ± dasabuvir regimen in patients with severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease and HCV genotypes 1a or 4 infection. [abstract 935]. Hepatology 2016; 64 (1 Suppl): 470A-471A. 

49 Lawitz E, Mangia A, Wyles D, et al. Sofosbuvir for previously untreated chronic hepatitis C infection. N Engl J Med 2013; 368 (20): 1878-1887.

50 Jacobson IM, Gordon SC, Kowdley KV, et al; POSITRON Study; FUSION Study. Sofosbuvir for hepatitis C genotype 2 or 3 in patients without treatment options. N Engl J Med 2013; 368 (20): 1867-1877.

51 Zeuzem S, Dusheiko GM, Salupere R, et al; VALENCE Investigators. Sofosbuvir and ribavirin in HCV genotypes 2 and 3. N Engl J Med 2014; 370 (21): 1993-2001.

52 Foster GR, Pianko S, Brown A, et al; BOSON Study Group. Efficacy of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin with or without peginterferon-alfa in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 3 infection and treatment-experienced patients with cirrhosis and hepatitis C virus genotype 2 infection. Gastroenterology 2015; 149 (6): 1462-1470.

53 Foster GR, Pianko S, Cooper C, et al. Sofosbuvir + peginterferon/ribavirin for 12 weeks vs sofosbuvir + ribavirin for 16 or 24 weeks in genotype 3 HCV infected patients and treatment-experienced cirrhotic patients with genotype 2 HCV: the BOSON Study [abstract L05]. J Hepatol 2015; 62 Suppl 2: S259-S260.

54 Nelson DR, Cooper JN, Lalezari JP, et al; ALLY-3 Study Team. All-oral 12-week treatment with daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 3 infection: ALLY-3 phase III study. Hepatology 2015; 61 (4): 1127-1135.

55 Hézode C, De Ledinghen V, Fontaine H, et al. Daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin in patients with HCV genotype 3 infection: interim analysis of a French multicenter compassionate use program. 66th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; San Francisco (USA); 13–17 Nov 2015.

56 Leroy V, Angus P, Bronowicki JP, et al. All-oral treatment with daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for 12 or 16 weeks in HCV genotype 3-infected patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis: the ALLY-3+ Phase 3 Study. 66th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; San Francisco (USA); 13–17 Nov 2015.

57 Brown A, Hezode C, Zuckerman E, et al. C-SCAPE: Efficacy and safety of 12 weeks of grazoprevir +/- elbasvir +/- ribavirin in patients with HCV GT2, 4, 5 or 6 infection. J Hepatol 2015; 62 Suppl 2: S619.

58 Hezode C, Fontaine H, Dorival C, et al; CUPIC Study Group. Triple therapy in treatment-experienced patients with HCV-cirrhosis in a multicentre cohort of the French Early Access Programme (ANRS CO20-CUPIC) - NCT01514890. J Hepatol 2013; 59 (3): 434-441.

59 Jacobson IM, Asante-Appiah E, Wong P, et al. Prevalence and impact of baseline NS5A resistance associated variants (RAVs) on the efficacy of elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR) against GT1a infection – 16 weeks vs 12 weeks [abstract LB-22]. 66th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; San Francisco (USA); 13–17 Nov 2015.

60 Ong ATL, George J, Douglas MW. Prevalence of antiviral resistance in an Australian hepatitis C population [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 10th Australasian Viral Hepatitis Conference; 29 Sep – 1 Oct 2016; Gold Coast, Queensland. https://www.eiseverywhere.com/file_uploads/c5381ee9d8bc949eba31febb05a4e53b_180_AdrianTeckLengOng.pdf (accessed Dec 2016).

61 Bourlière M, Gordon SC, Flamm SL, et al; POLARIS-1 and POLARIS-4 Investigators. Sofosbuvir, velpatasvir, and voxilaprevir for previously treated HCV infection. N Engl J Med 2017; 376: 2134-2146.

62 Yoshida EM, Sulkowski MS, Gane EJ, et al. Concordance of sustained virological response 4, 12, and 24 weeks post-treatment with sofosbuvir-containing regimens for hepatitis C virus. Hepatology 2015; 61 (1): 41-45.

63 de Franchis R; Baveno VI Faculty. Expanding consensus in portal hypertension: report of the Baveno VI Consensus Workshop: stratifying risk and individualizing care for portal hypertension. J Hepatol 2015; 63 (3): 743-752.

64 Bruix J, Sherman M; American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Management of hepatocellular carcinoma: an update. Hepatology 2011; 53 (3): 1020-1022.

65 European Association For The Study Of The Liver; European Organisation For Research And Treatment Of Cancer. EASL-EORTC clinical practice guidelines: management of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol 2012; 56 (4): 908-943.

66 Transplantation Society of Australia and New Zealand, Organ and Tissue Authority, Australasian Transplant Coordinators Association. Organ transplantation from deceased donors: consensus statement on eligibility criteria and allocation protocols. Canberra: Organ and Tissue Authority, 2015. http://www.donatelife.gov.au/tsanz-consensus-statement-eligibility-criteria-and-allocation-protocols (accessed Feb 2016).

67 Charlton M, Everson GT, Flamm SL, et al; SOLAR-1 Investigators. Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for treatment of HCV infection in patients with advanced liver disease. Gastroenterology 2015; 149 (3): 649-659.

68 Gane EJ, Manns MP, McCaughan G, et al. High efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir with ribavirin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis or liver transplantation and HCV infection: combined efficacy from the SOLAR-1 and SOLAR-2 trials [abstract 1049]. Hepatology 2015; 62 Suppl 1: 722A-723A.

69 Curry MP, Forns X, Chung R, et al. Sofosbuvir and ribavirin prevent recurrence of HCV infection after liver transplantation: an open-label study. Gastroenterology 2015; 148 (1): 100-107.e1.

70 Lawitz E, Poordad F, Gutierrez JA, et al. SVR12 results from the phase II, open-label IMPACT study of simeprevir (SMV) in combination with daclatasvir (DCV) and sofosbuvir (SOF) in treatment-naïve and -experienced patients with chronic HCV genotype 1/4 infection and decompensated liver disease [abstract 39]. Hepatology 2015; 62 Suppl 1: 227A.

71 Martini S, Donato MF, Mazzarelli C, et al. The Italian compassionate use of sofosbuvir (ITACOPS) in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis waitlisted for liver transplantation: virological and clinical outcomes from a national real-life experience [abstract LB-26]. Hepatology 2015; 62 (6 Suppl): 1395A.

72 McCaughan G, Roberts SK, Strasser SI, et al. The TOSCAR study: sofosbuvir and daclatasvir therapy for decompensated HCV cirrhosis with MELD scores > 15: what is the point of no return? [abstract 1077]. Hepatology 2015; 62 Suppl 1: 738A.

73 Welzel TM, Petersen J, Ferenci P, et al. Safety and efficacy of daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 3 infection: interim results of a multicenter European compassionate use program [abstract 37]. Hepatology 2015; 62 Suppl 1: 225A-226A.

74 Curry MP, O’Leary JG, Bzowej N, et al; ASTRAL-4 Investigators. Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir for HCV in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 2015; 373: 2618-2628.

75 Gane EJ, Hyland RH, An D, et al. Efficacy of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir, with or without ribavirin, for 12 weeks in patients with HCV genotype 3 or 6 infection. Gastroenterology 2015; 149 (6): 1454-1461.e1.

76 Coilly A, Pageaux G-P, Houssel-Debry P, et al. Improving liver function and delisting of patients awaiting liver transplantation for HCV cirrhosis: do we ask too much to DAA? [abstract 95]. Hepatology 2015; 62 Suppl 1: 257A.

77 Australia and New Zealand Liver Transplant Registry. 25th registry report. Brisbane: ANZLT, 2014. http://www.anzltr.org/Reports/25thANZLTRReport.pdf (accessed Feb 2016).

78 Burra P, De Martin E, Zanetto A, et al. Hepatitis C virus and liver transplantation: where do we stand? Transpl Int 2016; 29 (2): 135-152.

79 Verna EC, Abdelmessih R, Salomao MA, et al. Cholestatic hepatitis C following liver transplantation: an outcome-based histological definition, clinical predictors, and prognosis. Liver Transpl 2013; 19 (1): 78-88.

80 Poordad F, Schiff ER, Vierling JM, et al. L08: Daclatasvir, sofosbuvir, and ribavirin combination for HCV patients with advanced cirrhosis or post-transplant recurrence: Phase 3 ALLY-1 study. 2015 International Liver Congress: 50th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver; Vienna (Austria): 22–26 Apr 2015.

81 Kwo PY, Mantry PS, Coakley E, et al. An interferon-free antiviral regimen for HCV after liver transplantation. N Engl J Med 2014; 371 (25): 2375-2382.

82 Wiesner RH, Sorrell M, Villamil F; International Liver Transplantation Society Expert Panel. Report of the first International Liver Transplantation Society expert panel consensus conference on liver transplantation and hepatitis C. Liver Transpl 2003; 9 (11): S1-S9.

83 Leroy V, Dumortier J, Coilly A, et al. Efficacy of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir in patients with fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis C after liver transplantation. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015; 13 (11): 1993-2001.

84 Graham CS, Baden LR, Yu E, et al. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection on the course of hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33 (4): 562-569.

85 Weber R, Sabin CA, Friis-Møller N, et al. Liver-related deaths in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: the D:A:D study. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166 (15): 1632-1641.

86 Kitahata MM, Gange SJ, Abraham AG, et al; NA-ACCORD Investigators. Effect of early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy for HIV on survival. N Engl J Med 2009; 360 (18): 1815-1826.

87 Molina JM, Orkin C, Iser DM, et al; PHOTON-2 study team. Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for treatment of hepatitis C virus in patients co-infected with HIV (PHOTON-2): a multicentre, open-label, non-randomised, phase 3 study. Lancet 2015; 385 (9973): 1098-1106.

88 Naggie S, Cooper C, Saag M, et al; ION-4 Investigators. Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for HCV in patients coinfected with HIV-1. N Engl J Med 2015; 373 (8): 705-713.

89 Osinusi A, Townsend K, Kohli A, et al. Virologic response following combined ledipasvir and sofosbuvir administration in patients with HCV genotype 1 and HIV co-infection. JAMA 2015; 313 (12): 1232-1239.

90 Sulkowski MS, Eron JJ, Wyles D, et al. Ombitasvir, paritaprevir co-dosed with ritonavir, dasabuvir, and ribavirin for hepatitis C in patients co-infected with HIV-1: a randomized trial. JAMA 2015; 313 (12): 1223-1231.

91 Sulkowski MS, Naggie S, Lalezari J, et al. Sofosbuvir and ribavirin for hepatitis C in patients with HIV coinfection. JAMA 2014; 312 (4): 353-361.

92 Wyles DL, Ruane PJ, Sulkowski MS, et al; ALLY-2 Investigators. Daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir for HCV in patients coinfected with HIV-1. N Engl J Med 2015; 373 (8): 714-725.

93 Bradshaw D, Matthews G, Danta M. Sexually transmitted hepatitis C infection: the new epidemic in MSM? Curr Opin Infect Dis 2013; 26 (1): 66-72.

94 National HIV Testing Policy Expert Reference Committee. 2011 National HIV testing policy. Version 1.1. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, 2011.

95 National HCV Testing Policy Expert Reference Committee. 2012 National hepatitis C testing policy. Version 1.1. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, 2012.

96 Australasian Society for HIV Medicine Sub-Committee for Guidance on HIV Management. When to start antiretroviral therapy in people with HIV. http://arv.ashm.org.au/clinical-guidance (accessed Dec 2015).

97 Hull MC, Cescon A, Raboud A, et al. Switching from first antiretroviral therapy regimen while virologically suppressed is associated with increased risk of subsequent virologic failure [abstract TUAB0103]. AIDS 2014: 20th International AIDS Conference; Melbourne (Australia); 20–25 July 2014.

98 Wyles D, Bräu N, Kottilil S, et al; ASTRAL-5 Investigators. Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir for the treatment of hepatitis C virus in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1: an open-label, Phase 3 study. Clin Infect Dis 2017; 65: 6-12. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix260.

99 Kirby B, Mathias A, Rossi S, et al. No clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions between sofosbuvir (GS-7977) and HIV antiretrovirals atripla, rilpivirine, darunavir/ritonavir, or raltegravir in healthy volunteers. 63rd Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; Boston (USA); 9–11 Nov 2012.

100 European Association For The Study Of The Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines: management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Hepatol 2012; 57 (1): 167-185.

101 US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA warns about the risk of hepatitis B reactivating in some patients treated with direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C. Silver Spring, Md: FDA, 2016. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm522932.htm (accessed Dec 2016).

102 Liu CJ, Chuang WL, Lee CM, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for the treatment of dual chronic infection with hepatitis B and C viruses. Gastroenterology 2009; 136 (2): 496-504.

103 Sulkowski MS, Chuang WL, Kao JH, et al. No evidence of reactivation of hepatitis B virus among patients treated with ledipasvir-sofosbuvir for hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Infect Dis 2016; 63 (9): 1202-1204.

104 Wang C, Ji D, Chen J, et al. Hepatitis due to reactivation of hepatitis B virus in endemic areas among patients with hepatitis C treated with direct-acting antiviral agents. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017; 15 (1): 132-136. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2016.06.023.

105 Johnson RJ, Willson R, Yamabe H, et al. Renal manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection. Kidney Int 1994; 46 (5): 1255-1263.

106 AASLD/IDSA HCV Guidance Panel. Hepatitis C guidance: AASLD-IDSA recommendations for testing, managing, and treating adults infected with hepatitis C virus. Hepatology 2015; 62 (3): 932-954.

107 European Association For The Study Of The Liver. EASL Recommendations on treatment of hepatitis C 2015. J Hepatol 2015; 63 (1): 199-236.

108 Bruchfeld A, Lindahl K, Schvarcz R, Stahle L. Dosage of ribavirin in patients with hepatitis C should be based on renal function: a population pharmacokinetic analysis. Ther Drug Monit 2002; 24 (6): 701-708.

109 Pockros PJ, Reddy KR, Mantry PS, et al. Efficacy of direct-acting antiviral combination for patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection and severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease. Gastroenterology 2016; 150 (7): 1590-1598. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.078.

110 Daklinza (daclatasvir). US FDA approved product information. Princeton, NJ: Bristol-Myers Squibb, July 2015.

111 Hajarizadeh B, Grebely J, Dore GJ. Epidemiology and natural history of HCV infection. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013; 10 (9): 553-562.

112 Matthews GV, Pham ST, Hellard M, et al. Patterns and characteristics of hepatitis C transmission clusters among HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals in the Australian trial in acute hepatitis C. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 52 (6): 803-811.

113 Wandeler G, Gsponer T, Bregenzer A, et al; Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Hepatitis C virus infections in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: a rapidly evolving epidemic. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 55 (10): 1408-1416.

114 Danta M, et al. Recent epidemic of acute hepatitis C virus in HIV-positive men who have sex with men linked to high-risk sexual behaviours. AIDS 2007; 21 (8): 983-991.

115 Robaeys G, Grebely J, Mauss S, et al; International Network on Hepatitis in Substance Users. Recommendations for the management of hepatitis C virus infection among people who inject drugs. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 57 Suppl 2: S129-S137.

116 Blackard JT, Shata MT, Shire NJ, Sherman KE. Acute hepatitis C virus infection: a chronic problem. Hepatology 2008; 47 (1): 321-331.

117 Grebely J, Matthews GV, Dore GJ. Treatment of acute HCV infection. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 8 (5): 265-274.

118 Grebely J, Matthews GV, Petoumenos K, Dore GJ. Spontaneous clearance and the beneficial impact of treatment on clearance during recent hepatitis C virus infection. J Viral Hepat 2010; 17 (12): 896.

119 Hajarizadeh B, Grady B, Page K, et al; InC3 Study Group. Patterns of hepatitis C virus RNA levels during acute infection: the InC3 study. PLoS One 2015; 10 (4): e0122232.

120 Hofer H, Watkins-Riedel T, Janata O, et al. Spontaneous viral clearance in patients with acute hepatitis C can be predicted by repeated measurements of serum viral load. Hepatology 2003; 37 (1): 60-64.

121 Dore GJ, Hellard M, Matthews GV, et al; Australian Trial In Acute Hepatitis C Study Group. Effective treatment of injecting drug users with recently acquired hepatitis C virus infection. Gastroenterology 2010; 138 (1): 123-135.e1-2.

122 Reig M, Mariño Z, Perelló C, et al. Unexpected high rate of early tumor recurrence in patients with HCV-related HCC undergoing interferon-free therapy. J Hepatol 2016; 65 (4): 719-726.

123 Morgan RL, Baack B, Smith BD, et al. Eradication of hepatitis C virus infection and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Ann Intern Med 2013; 158 (5 Pt 1): 329-337.

124 Conti F, Buonfiglioli F, Scuteri A, et al. Early occurrence and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in HCV-related cirrhosis treated with direct-acting antivirals. J Hepatol 2016; 65 (4): 727-733.

125 ANRS collaborative study group on hepatocellular carcinoma (ANRS CO22 HEPATHER, CO12 CirVir and CO23 CUPILT cohorts). Lack of evidence of an effect of direct-acting antivirals on the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma: data from three ANRS cohorts. J Hepatol 2016; 65 (4): 734-740.

126 Muir AJ, Buti M, Nahass R, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with chronic HCV infection and compensated or decompensated cirrhosis following treatment with sofosbuvir-based regimens [abstract 880]. Hepatology 2016; 64 (1 Suppl): 437A-438A.

127 Romano A, Capra F, Piovesan S, et al. Incidence and pattern of “de novo” hepatocellular carcinoma in HCV patients treated with oral DAAs [abstract 19]. Hepatology 2016; 64 (1 Suppl): 10A.

128 El-Serag HB, Kanwal F, Richardson P, Kramer J. Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma after sustained virological response in veterans with hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology 2016; 64 (1): 130-137. doi: 10.1002/hep.28535.

129 Cheung MC, Walker AJ, Hudson BE, et al. Outcomes after successful direct-acting antiviral therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C and decompensated cirrhosis. J Hepatol 2016; 65 (4): 741-747.

130 Andrews J, Guyatt G, Oxman AD, et al. GRADE guidelines: 14. Going from evidence to recommendations: the significance and presentation of recommendations. J Clin Epidemiol 2013; 66 (7): 719-725.

 

 

Tags: CCK

PrintEmail